Getting Rich Off Ruining Lives, How Private For-Profit Prisons Use Juveniles as a Tool to Line Their Pockets

photo courtesy of: http://www.wired.com/rawfile/2012/04/photog-hopes-to-effect-policy-with-survey-of-juvenile-lock-ups/#slideid-45151

Cutting costs and saving money has become a top priority in many industries across the country, pushing effectiveness, performance, and successful outcomes lower and lower down the totem pole.  With budgetary strains affecting states across the country, governments are putting more faith in privatization as a way to save money.  One industry that has experienced enormous controversy over privatization efforts is the juvenile justice system.  Despite an extensive record full of allegations regarding physical and sexual abuse, poor facility conditions, and inadequate programming that has come to characterize the for-profit private juvenile prison industry, nearly 40% of juvenile delinquents in the United States today are housed in private institutions.

The name James Slattery has become associated with private prisons, but for all the wrong reasons.  A one-time New York City hotelier, Slattery is not a newcomer to the prison scene.  From establishing “welfare hotels” in the 1980s to halfway houses for federal prisoners in the 1990s, Slattery’s profit making ventures have consistently been controversial, both in nature and performance.  Notwithstanding the repugnant track record his previous enterprises hold, Slattery, now head of Youth Services International (YSI), has contracts with 16 states and has been entrusted with the responsibility of supervising over 40,000 juveniles over the past 20 years.  Perhaps one of the most notorious news pieces associated with Slattery’s name occurred at a boot camp in Texas operated by one of his previous companies, Correctional Services Corporation.  In 2001, a juvenile came down with pneumonia and begged guards to see a doctor because he couldn’t breathe.  Instead of complying with his request, staff accused the juvenile of faking it and forced him to do pushups in his own vomit.  Nine days later, the juvenile died due to medical neglect.

YSI’s private for-profit juvenile prisons embody a horrific example of what happens when the government punts social services to private entities with little subsequent oversight.  Driven by their bottom line focus, Slattery’s facilities pay dismal wages to employees resulting in high staff turnover rates and leaving inexperienced and poorly trained guards left to supervise juvenile populations.  The resulting conditions are dangerous and unsatisfactory; juveniles are subject to extensive physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and deprivation, many times being forced to live in abysmal conditions with substandard basic necessities.  “When oversight is not as strong as it can be, companies are only going to be incentivized to do what the government that’s paying them makes them do.  And so in these cases if the oversight is lacking, if there is not constant monitoring, I think there is an incentive to cut costs and services.”

Even though the juvenile justice system was created with rehabilitative efforts in mind in an attempt to help youth become productive, law-abiding adults, “[p]rivate for-profit prisons squarely undermine good juvenile justice practices because these companies’ business models predicate high incarceration and recidivism rates for kids so that they can continue to fill beds in their facilities.  This might be the saddest profit motive ever.” Once states agree to these long-term contracts, they are obligated to fill the prison beds within these private facilities or else face penalties and pay for all unused, empty beds.  As a for-profit institution, YSI prisons benefit from keeping more people locked up.  In the words of Juvenile Judge Ron Alvarez, these institutions are like a third world country that is controlled by some type of evil power.  YSI’s juvenile facilities have violated and continue to violate numerous federal and state guidelines by frequently and unnecessarily using abusive treatments, the unavailability and inadequacy of programs and basic necessities such as food, and extremely violent confrontations between guards and youth, with reports showing that guards slap and choke juveniles even to the point of fracturing youth’s bones at times.

“Over the past quarter century, Slattery’s for-profit prison enterprises have run afoul of the Justice Department and authorities in New York, Florida, Maryland, Nevada and Texas for alleged offenses ranging from condoning abuse of inmates to plying politicians with undisclosed gifts while seeking to secure state contracts.” Despite the allegations against YSI’s facilities, they are able to continue acquiring contracts through practices such as poor and sometimes even falsified documentation, neglecting to document serious events and scaring youth into not reporting incidents.  “The paperwork looked great, because someone was going around and spending overtime just to make sure that paperwork was correct.  If there was something missing, they would just forge it”, according to former supervisor for a YSI juvenile detention center, Angela Phillips.  Slattery is also able to avoid repercussion by pulling out of contracts before the government has a chance to take action.  Furthermore, a complete lack of governmental interest allows Slattery’s abusive institutions to remain viable placement for juvenile offenders.  Perhaps one of the most illustrative examples of this unsettling truth can be seen in youth facilities in Florida, where 100% of the state’s juveniles are housed in private prisons.  A Florida YSI facility with a history of numerous abuse allegations, had eight confirmed cases of child abuse in one year, which were all well documented.  In the same year, 96% of the staff left this facility.  Remarkably, the Department of Justice not only reinstated YSI’s contract, but also fired the monitor who reported the cases of abuse.  According to a former DOJ executive staffer, “They [FL] don’t want the providers to look bad, because they don’t have anyone else to provide this service. . . Bottom line, the state of Florida doesn’t want responsibility for these kids.”  Furthermore, Slattery has a tendency of acquiring powerful confederates within the government by making contributions to state candidates and committees.  Over the past 15 years, Slattery, his wife, and other YSI executives have donated in excess of $400,000 to Florida politicians, representing more than the combined donations of both Office Depot and Darden Restaurants, two of Florida’s largest Fortune 500 companies.

Marketing their institutions as able to provide benefits to taxpayers and produce better outcomes at lower costs than state run facilities, YSI’s claims have been severely undermined by an overabundance of evidence.  Generating some of the worst reoffending rates in the nation, more than 40% of juveniles housed in a YSI facility in Florida were rearrested and convicted of another crime within a year of their release in comparison to only 25% in New York, a state that has never utilized private prison facilities, within the same timeframe.  In an effort to cut costs, states that have turned to private for-profit prisons to house some of their most troubled youth are washing their hands of the responsibility to care for juvenile populations that could substantially benefit from rehabilitative efforts, yet they are essentially being left in the care of a man tainted with a horrific history who is focused solely on the bottom line.  “Quality assurance is looking at contract adherence, whether they’re meeting the general terms of the contract, not the goals of the rehabilitation of the youth.”

Although the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice recently announced they wouldn’t be renewing their contract with YSI for the facility that holds the title of having the highest rate of youth alleging sexual assaults in the country, with upwards of 30% alleging inappropriate sexual contact with staff, a spokesman for the Department claimed the decision was driven by the need to cut costs rather than due to the allegations of rampant sexual misconduct.  With little governmental interest or oversight in these private facilities, even after allegations of abuse and claims of inadequate programming and subpar conditions surface, Slattery, YSI, and other private juvenile institutions will have free reign to do as they please to our juvenile populations.  The overarching motives supporting the creation of a separate juvenile justice system are based on a juvenile’s unique salvageability, as their traits and characteristics are more malleable and transitory in nature and therefore are more susceptible to rehabilitative efforts than their adult counterparts.  With few rehabilitative programs in place in these private prisons and little to look forward to in terms of available opportunities upon release (especially without support and guidance), state’s current reliance on private prisons to “rehabilitate” our country’s juvenile populations is essentially ensuring that a large part of those released will return to some sort of detention down the road, whether it be juvenile or adult prison.  If the government can’t even show interest in providing programs, services, and adequate basic necessities to a population that has been shown to possess the unique ability to learn and grow from their past behaviors and mistakes, the possibility of a bright future for anyone, juveniles and society as a whole included, is bleak and dismal.  Studies have shown that youth incarceration doesn’t reduce recidivism rates, doesn’t benefit public safety, and exposes youth in confinement to further abuse and violence.  Exhibiting almost an addictive approach towards incarceration, it seems as if the United States has moved from an attitude based on problem solving towards a more repressive philosophy that essentially serves to destroy a promising and hopeful juvenile population.  If there’s any hope for a brighter future for anyone involved, there needs to be a collective understanding that oppressive incarceration, especially in abusive for-profit private prisons, is not the answer.

Scare ‘Em Straight

scared straight

In 1978, Arnold Shapiro directed a documentary called “Scared Straight!” which followed at-risk teens who had been in trouble for everything from fighting, theft, and  drug use to promiscuity, gambling and gang affiliation, as they spend a day in jail with actual inmates. The teens are confronted, yelled at, and verbally harassed by the adult inmates, as they experience the harsh realities of life in prison. The goal of this “project” was to frighten the young delinquents into “scaring them straight,” so as to prevent the teens from reoffending, and thus, hopefully, avoiding a life spent in prison. The end of the film features a “roll call” of the children, revealing that the day with the convicts had, in fact, “scared them straight.”

However, a few of the delinquents were said to have reoffended, although that fact seems to be altogether forgotten and instead the idea of “scaring children straight,” is glorified as a successful endeavor. Even though the recidivism rate might have been lower under these circumstances, it is important to remember that this “project” was created by a filmmaker and not a psychiatrist specifically trained in juvenile delinquency, rehabilitation of felons, or even the longterm effects of using scare tactics experimentally.

A study done in 2002 and updated in 2003 by Anthony Petrosino et al. revealed that programs like the one the documentary seemed to be promoting “are not effective as a stand-alone crime prevention strategy.” Further, the researchers went on to explain that:

“…these programs likely increase the odds that children exposed to them will commit offenses in future. Despite the variability in the type of intervention used, ranging from harsh, confrontational interactions to tours of the facility converge on the same result: an increase in criminality in the experimental group when compared to a no- treatment control. Doing nothing would have been better than exposing juveniles to the program.”

In 2011, A&E introduced the new series, “Beyond Scared Straight,” which, according to A&E’s website, follows “derailed, defiant and disrespectful teens as they enter immersive jail programs aimed at deterring them from a life of crime.” Each episode focuses on a different inmate-run program in the United States and follows several at-risk teenagers before they attend the program, throughout their day immersed in the prison, immediately afterwards, and then a few weeks later. In addition, each episode ends with updates of the teen participants since the taping of the program, citing both successes and some failures in their post-prison behavior. Season 4 “Highlights” include:

-In Georgia, returning audience favorite Deputy Jonathan Lyle takes on a “buckwild” partying runaway, a drug-dealing Jekyll-Hyde and a young teen who threatened his pregnant mother with a knife.

-Returning inmate “Hustle Man”, a ferocious incarcerated killer, is dragged away from the teens after he tries to attack.

-12-year-old petty thief Alissa sobs uncontrollably at the sights and sounds of jail life, but, more shocking, her fourteen-year-old brother, himself having committed armed burglary and grand theft, refuses to comfort her amid the chaos.

-An explosive giant, Joseph, assaults his little brother and his adoptive parents until he comes face-to-face with menacing convicts and deputies.

-Maura, a privileged suburban shopaholic who steals just for the thrill, experiences the gritty consequences of her crimes.

-Cody sports tattoos indicating affiliation even though he doesn’t claim a set–a dangerous circumstance on both sides of the bars, especially since he fears gang retribution for getting into a fight with a gang member at school.

-A beautiful cheerleader, Kristin seems set on following her mother’s criminal past by running the streets, stealing and using drugs.

-Aaron, a feisty habitual liar, initially confounds deputies by easily overcoming physical challenge during an exhausting all-night jail stay (returning fan favorite Richland County, SC) until deputies set their sights on getting inside his mind.

To be honest, I cannot say one way or another whether these programs truly do help the participants or if they (like the research above indicates) serve to increase the likelihood of the young offenders to reoffend. I can say, however, that I am uncomfortable with the idea of using children as lab rats and throwing them in this “scientific” experiment and hoping it helps them. I do not like the concept of using at-risk youth to serve our entertainment needs. It’s as if the producers of the show are outwardly saying, “This is going to help the kids!” but then privately whispering, “And if it doesn’t? Oh well, it made for great TV!” I think the psychological effect of having a child (and I do mean a “child,” given the participants are all under the age of 18) thrust into a situation like prison life is relevant to the discussion and that even if a child does not reoffend after participating in one of these programs, the program is not necessarily a success. The previously mentioned study says it best:

“Policymakers should take steps to build the kind of research infrastructure within their jurisdiction that could rigorously evaluate criminological interventions to ensure they are not harmful to the very citizens they aim to help.”

Photo courtesy of: A&E

Wednesday’s Children and the Law News Roundup

Breaking the Cycle of Hyper-Recidivism, Juvenile Justice Information Exchange

Is reform a means to cut the budget or is cutting the budget a means to reform?

It’s like which came first–the chicken or the egg?

For Georgia, I think money is part of the equation, and ultimately becomes part of the outcome, but it’s definitely not the primary objective despite it’s appearance.

In times of economic woe, one does not increase those woes with added fiscal burdens. A financial crisis is an easy out for any governor or lawmaker to avoid unwanted legislation.

Instead of the road of least resistance, Georgia’s Gov. Nathan Deal chose the road less traveled and established a Criminal Justice Reform Council of multi-disciplinary members to study the juvenile justice system and recommend reforms to improve the system.

In  Georgia, Sex Abuse Allegations Cloud Progress of Juvenile Justice Reform, Juvenile Justice Information Exchange

DALLAS, Ga. — Main Street in Dallas, Ga., looks like many a former country town pulled into the orbit of Atlanta. The tidy retired courthouse now houses an arts association and is surrounded by cafes, antique shops and a pleasant plaza. A growing population pushed the law a mile away into the new Watson Government Complex five years ago. A few miles on the other side of town, the Paulding County Sports Complex offers green fields for football and baseball.

The buildings across the street have a great view of the play fields, albeit through chain link fences and razor wire. That’s where the state of Georgia put the Paulding Regional Youth Detention Center, a short-term lockup which houses up to 75 boys and 25 girls from across seven northwest Georgia counties.

At the gates of the Paulding RYDC, the pleasantness of Dallas stops.  A federal study ranked it second in the nation for youth reports of sexual victimization while incarcerated.

A sister facility in rural Eastman, Ga. ranked fourth in the nation.

21 Children Die From Tainted Lunches at Indian School, NYTimes.com

NEW DELHI — Twenty-one children died and more than two dozen others were hospitalized Tuesday after eating lunch tainted with insecticide at a primary school in the eastern state of Bihar.

The children complained that the food — rice, beans and potato curry — tasted odd and soon suffered severe vomiting and diarrhea, officials said. The school’s cook tasted the food and promptly fell ill as well, according to P. K. Shahi, minister of human resource development in Bihar.

School meal programs in India, like many government programs, are rife with fraud. Corruption has long been endemic in Bihar, one of India’s poorest states.

After seeing the children get sick, the school’s teachers and administrators fled the school, according to Dr. Shambhu Nath Singh, the deputy superintendent of the government hospital in Bihar’s Saran District. Parents took the children to the hospital. Seven were dead on arrival and seven others died soon after, Dr. Singh said.